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Chapter: MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES | JKBOSE Class 10th Geography Notes

Chapter: MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES | JKBOSE Class 10th Geography Notes | jkboseclass10.kashmirstudent.com


Minerals  and  Energy  Resources 

Minerals 
Mineral  are  a  “homogenous,  naturally  occurring  substance  with  a definable  internal  structure. These  are  found  in  varied  forms  in  nature,  ranging  from  the  hardest diamond  to  the  softest  talc. 

Mode of  Occurrence  of  Minerals Minerals  are  usually  found  in  'ores'.  The  accumulation  of  any  mineral mixed  with  other  elements  is  called  ore. 

Minerals  generally  occur  in  these  forms: 

In  igneous  and  metamorphic  rocks  minerals  may  occur  in  the  cracks, crevices,  faults  or  joints.  The  smaller  occurrences  are  called  veins  and the  larger  are  called  lodes.  
Example:  tin,  copper,  zinc  and  lead  etc. 

In  sedimentary  rocks,  a  number  of  minerals  occur  in  beds  or  layers.
Example:  Coal,  iron,  gypsum,  potash  salt,  sodium  salt  etc. 

Minerals  also  found  in  the  decomposition  of  surface  rocks,  and  the removal  of  soluble  constituents,  leaving  a  residual  mass  of  weathered material  containing  ores.  
Example:  Bauxite. 

Minerals  may  occur  as  alluvial  deposits  in  sands  of  valley  floors  and the  base  of  hills  known  as  ‘placer  deposits’.  Example:  Gold,  silver,  tin and  platinum  etc. 

The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals. Example: Common salt, Magnesium and Bromine etc. 

Classification of Minerals 

Minerals can be classified into three types: a. Metallic Minerals 
b. Non-Metallic Minerals 
c. Energy Minerals 

a) Metallic Minerals 
These minerals contain metals and are of following types: 

1. Ferrous minerals: These minerals contain iron and accounts for about three- fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries. 

Iron Ore 
It is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. 

Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 percent. 

Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used, but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite. (50-60 percent).

India is rich in good quality iron ores. 
The major iron ore belts in India are: Odisha-Jharkhand belt. 
Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. 
Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka. 
Maharashtra-Goa belt in Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. 

Manganese 
It is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferromanganese alloy. It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints. Orissa is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. 

2. Non-Ferrous Minerals 
These minerals do not contain iron. They play role in a number of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries. 

Example of Non-ferrous minerals includes copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold. 

Copper 
It is malleable, ductile and a good conductor, therefore, copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries. 

The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Khetri mines in Rajasthan and Singhbhum district of Jharkhand are leading producers of copper. 

Bauxite 
It  is  a  clay-like  substance  from  which  alumina  and  later  aluminum  is obtained. Aluminum  is  an  important  metal  because  it  combines  the  strength  of metals  such  as  iron,  with  extreme  lightness  and  also  with  good conductivity  and  great  malleability. 

In  India,  mainly  found  in  the  Amarkantak  plateau,  Maikal  hills  and the  plateau  region  of  Bilaspur-Katni. 

b)  Non-Metallic  Minerals 
These  minerals  do  not  contain  metal. Mica It  is  a  mineral  made  up  of  a  series  of  plates  or  leaves. It  can  be  clear,  black,  green,  red  yellow  or  brown. 

Mica  is  one  of  the  most  indispensable  minerals  used  in  electric  and electronic  industries  due  to  its  excellent  di-electric  strength,  low  power loss  factor,  insulating  properties  and  resistance  to  high  voltage.

Leading  producer  are  
northern  edge  of  the  Chota  Nagpur  plateau. 
Koderma  Gaya  –  Hazaribagh  belt  of  Jharkhand. 
Also  produced  in  Ajmer,  Rajasthan.  
Nellore  mica  belt  of  Andhra Pradesh. 

Limestone 
Limestone  is  found  in  association  with  rocks  composed  of  calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. It  is  the  basic  raw  material  for  the  cement  industry  and  essential  for smelting  iron  ore  in  the  blast  furnace. 


Conservation of Minerals 

Why to conserve minerals? 
Mineral deposits are present in very less quantity in the world i.e. one per cent of the earth’s crust. The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow while the consumption rate is very fast therefore, mineral resources are finite and non-renewable. So, we have to conserve minerals so that it is available for future generation. 

How to conserve minerals? 
A joint effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner. Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow use of low grade ores at low costs. 
Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes. 

c) Energy Resources 
Energy is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries. It can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity. 

Energy resources can be classified as: 

Conventional sources: include firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. 

Non-conventional sources: include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy. 

Conventional sources of Energy

Coal 
It is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs. 

Coal is formed due the compression of plant material over millions of years. 

There are various types of coals (on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial): 

Peat: Low carbon and high moisture contents and low heating capacity. 

Lignite: Low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. 

Bituminous: Buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures. 

Most popular coal in commercial use. 

Anthracite: Highest quality hard coal. 

In India, coal occurs in Gondwana and tertiary rock stages. 

The major resources of Gondwana coal are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys. 

Tertiary coals occur in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. 

Petroleum 
It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for manufacturing industries. 

Petroleum refineries act as a “nodal industry” for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries. 

About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam.


Natural  Gas 
It  is  used  as  a  source  of  energy  as  well  as  an  industrial  raw  material  in the  petrochemical  industry. It  is  considered  an  environment  friendly  fuel  because  of  low  carbon dioxide  emissions. 

Natural  gas  have  been  discovered  in  the  Krishna-  Godavari  basin, Mumbai  High  and  allied  fields,  Gulf  of  Cambay.  Andaman  and  Nicobar islands. 

Electricity 
It  has  a  wide  range  of  applications  in  today’s  world. 
Electricity  is  generated  mainly  in  two  ways: 
By  running  water  which  drives  hydro  turbines  to  generate  hydro electricity 

By  burning  other  fuels  such  as  coal,  petroleum  and  natural  gas  to  drive turbines  to  produce  thermal  power. 

Hydro  electricity  is  generated  by  fast  flowing  water It  is  a  renewable  resource. 

Multi-purpose  projects  like  the  Bhakra  Nangal,  Damodar  Valley Corporation,  the  Kopili  Hydel  Project  etc.  produce  hydroelectricity. 

Thermal  electricity  is  generated  by  using  coal,  petroleum  and  natural  gas. 

The thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity. 

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy 

Nuclear or Atomic Energy 
It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. It is used to generate electric power. 
Uranium and Thorium are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan. 
The Monazite sands of Kerala is also rich in Thorium. 

Solar Energy 
India is a tropical country, therefore it has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. 

Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. 

Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas which help in minimizing the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes that will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture. 

Wind Power 
India has great potential of wind power. 

Largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms. 

Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country. 

Biogas 
Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas. 

Biogas plants using cattle dung are known as ‘Gobar gas plants’ in rural India. Biogas provide twin benefits to the farmer in the form of energy and improved quality of manure. 

Tidal Energy 
Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. 

In India the Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat on the western coast and Gangetic delta in Sunderban regions of West Bengal provide ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy. 

Geo Thermal Energy 
•The heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth is called Geo thermal Energy. 

•Groundwater in high temperatures area absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot. It is so hot that when it rises to the earth’s surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity. 

Two experimental projects have been set up in India to utilize geothermal energy: 
• Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh 
• Puga Valley, Ladakh. 

Conservation of Resources 
Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development. 

There are two ways for adopting the path of sustainable development of energy: 
→ Promotion of energy conservation 
 → increased use of renewable energy sources. 

Some steps in this direction are: 
→ Using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles 
→ Switching off electricity when not in use 
→ Using power-saving devices 
→ Using non-conventional sources of energy. 

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