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Chapter: POWER SHARING | JKBOSE Class 10th Political Science Notes

Chapter: POWER SHARING | JKBOSE Class 10th Political Science Notes |

Q1:  What  are  the  different  forms  of  Power  sharing  in  modern democracies?  Give  an  example  of  each  of  these.  

Horizontal  power  sharing:  In  a  democracy,  power  is  shared  among the  different  organs  of  the  government  such  as  Legislature,  executive  and judiciary.  This  is  called  the  horizontal  distribution  of  power  because  it allows  different  organs  of  the  government  placed  at  the  same  level  to exercise  different  powers.  Under  this  kind  of  power  sharing  arrangements, no  one  can  exercise  unlimited  powers.  Each  organ  has  its  own  powers,  and it  can  also  check  the  powers  of  other.  So  this  results  in  a  balance  of  power among  the  various  institutions.   

Power  Sharing  among  governments  at  different  levels: Under  this, people    choose  separate  government  at  separate  level,  for  example,  a  general local  government  for  the  entire  country  and    local  government  at  the provincial,  sub  national  country  is  usually  called  a    federal  government.   

Power  sharing  among  different  social  groups:  In  democracy,  especially, in    a  multi  ethnic  society,  power  is  also  shared  among  social  groups  such  as the  religious  and  linguistic  groups.  “Community  Government”  in  Belgium is  a  good  example  of  this  arrangement.  In  some  countries  there  are constitutional  and  legal  arrangements  whereby  socially  weaker  sections  and women  are  represented  in  the  legislatures  and  administration.   

Power  sharing  among  political  parties,  pressure  groups  and movements:  In  ademocracy,  power  is  also  shared  among  different  political parties,  pressure  groups  and  movements.  Democracy  provides  the  citizens  a choice  to  choose  their  rulers.  This  choice  is  provided  by  the  various  political parties,  who  contest  elections  to  win  them.  Such  competition  ensures  that power  does  not  remain  in  one  hand. 

Q2: State one prudential reason and moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context. 

 A prudential reason for power sharing is that it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between the various social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure political stability. Imposing the will of the majority community over other may look like an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run, it undermines the unity of the nation. In India, seats have been reserved in the Legislatures for the socially weaker sections keeping in mind the prudential reason for power sharing. 

 A moral reason for power sharing is that it upholds that spirit of democracy. In a democratic set up, the citizens too have a say in governance. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. In India, the citizens can come together to debate and criticize the policies and decisions of the government. This in turn puts pressure on the government to re-design its policies and reconsider its decisions. This active political participation is in keeping with the moral reason for power sharing. 

Q3: After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? 

Thomman- Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions. 

Mathayi- Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions. 

Ouseph–Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions. 

(i) I agree with Ouseph. 
 This is because social divisions of one kind or another exist in most societies and can take different forms in different societies .It means that groups that share a common interest on one issue ,are likely to be on different sides on a different issue .It provides equality to all and is helpful in sharing views in the existing society .

Q4:  The  Mayor  of  Merchtem,  a  town  near  Brussels  in  Belgium  has defended  a  ban  on  speaking  French  in  the  town’s  schools.  He  said that  the  ban  would  help  all  non-Dutch  speakers  integrate  in  the Flemish  town.  Do  you  think  that  this  measure  is  in  keeping  with  the spirit  of  Belgium’s  power  sharing  arrangements?  Give  your  reasons in  about  50  words.   

This  measure  has  not  been  taken  in  keeping  with  the  spirit  of Belgium’s  power  sharing  arrangement.  As per  the  power  sharing arrangement  in  Belgium,  Dutch  speakers  and  French  speaker  have  stake in  power.  The  Brussels  government  has  equal  representation  from French  speaking  people  and  Dutch  speaking  people,  which  shows  that both  groups  have  to  respect  each  other’s  rights.  By  banning  French, there  will  be  evil  unrest  in  the  country.  Both  the  languages  should  be made  acceptable  in  the  town  schools  as  the  main  purpose  of  the  power sharing  arrangement  is  to  maintain  peace  between  the  French  and  the Dutch  speaking  constituencies.  This  bi-lingual  education  system  will  be a  better  way  to  integrate  the  people  of  the  town.  Hence,  the  Mayor  of Merchtem  is  wrong  in  banning  the  French  language  in  the  schools.     

Q.5.  Read  the  passage  and  pick  out  any  one  of  the  prudential  reasons for  power  sharing  offered  in  this.   

Reducing  corruption  by  giving  power  into  the  hands  of  the  concerned people  and  making  them  responsible  for  their  own  decisions   

Q.6.  Different  arguments  are  usually  put  forth  in  favour  and  against power  sharing. Identify  those  which  are  in  favour  of  power  sharing and  select  the  answer  using  codes  given  below.  
Ans.  (a)  A,B,D,E   

Q.7.  Consider  the  statements  about  power  sharing  in  Belgium  and  Sri Lanka  .Which  of  the  statements  is  correct?   

Ans. All  the  statements  are  correct.   

A is correct because the Mayor of Merchtem had imposed a ban on speaking French in the town schools falling in Dutch speaking majority. 

 B is correct because of the majoritarianism adopted there. 

 C is correct because it is the voice of the minority people in Sri Lanka kept aloof from fundamental rights. 

 D is correct because the people of Belgium are so pastured as they wanted a cocoon like community government as if they were insects. 

Q.8. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:   

List  I     

1.  Power  shared  among  different  organs  of government.   

2.  Power  shared  among  governments  at different  levels.   

3.  Power    Shared  by  different  social groups.   

4.  Power  shared  by  two  or  more  political party.   

List  II   
1.  Federal  Government.   
2.  Separation  of  powers     
3.  Community  Government.   
4.  Coalition  Government.   

Thus,  D,  B,  A, C  is  the  correct  answer. 

Q9. Consider the statements given below and state which are true and which false? 

Ans. (a) A is true and B is false. 


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