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Chapter: AGRICULTURE | JKBOSE Class 10th Geography Notes

Chapter: AGRICULTURE | JKBOSE Class 10th Geography Notes | 

Chapter: AGRICULTURE | JKBOSE Class 10th Geography Notes |

JKBOSE/CBSE Class 10 Geography Notes for Revision PDF Download

NCERT Class 10 Geography Notes

The Geography Class 10 Cbse Notes consists of seven chapters that are enlisted as follows:

Chapter-1 Resources and Development

Chapter-1 of the Class 10 Geography 

Chapters introduces Natural Resources, and its classification and students will also get an in-depth comprehension about the development of resources and resource planning in India. Chapter-1 of the Geography Notes Class 10 imparts knowledge on the classification of different types of soils and the land resources found in India. Finally, students discuss Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation and its impact on the environment.

Chapter-2 Forest and Wildlife Resources

The chapter-2 of Class 10 Geography Chapters deals how all the living organisms form a complex web of an ecological system, the rich flora and fauna in India, and the steps that are required to conserve forest and wildlife in India. Chapter-2 gives a thorough explanation about the various steps that need to be taken by the citizens to conserve the wildlife resources and forest.

Chapter-3 Water Resources

In Chapter-3 students will get a thorough understanding of water resources. The chapter- Water Resources briefs students about the availability of freshwater on earth. It enlists the multiple situations on the scarcity of water generated. The chapter also discusses the pros and cons of constructing dams on rivers to conserve and save water. In the end, Chapter Water Resources talks about Rainwater Harvesting as a means to conserve water.

Chapter-4 Agriculture

Agriculture is a primary activity that produces a considerable amount of food raw material for various industries. In this chapter of the Geography Class 10 Notes, students learn about the implications and the reasons behind the two-thirds of India's population is engaged in agricultural activities. In CBSE Geography for Class 10, Agriculture chapter students will understand the different types of cropping patterns, the major crops grown in India, and the various farming techniques. Finally, the chapter imparts knowledge on how agriculture influences or contributes to the Output, National Economy, and Employment.

Chapter-5 Minerals and Energy Resources

This chapter of the Geography Class 10 Cbse Notes gives you an in-depth comprehension of the earth's crust and the different minerals embedded in the rocks. Students also imbibe about the various metals that can be extracted from the minerals after refinement. The chapter Minerals and Energy Resources enlists the various stages of development, and how humans utilise minerals for decoration purposes, ceremonial and religious rites, and for their livelihood. The chapter also briefs about the existence of different minerals, their classification, the various types of energy resources, and the various steps to conserve minerals and energy resources.

Chapter-6 Manufacturing Industries

Chapter-6 deals with the production of goods in large quantities through the process of the raw materials and the role of employees or workers in the textile industries, steel factories, bakeries, car, breweries, and more through secondary activities. Through the Geography Class 10 Notes, students will learn about the various manufacturing industries which fall in the secondary sector.

Chapter-7 Lifelines of National Economy

Through the Geography Notes Class 10- Lifelines of National Economy, students will get an in-depth comprehension how the modern means of transport and communication serve as lifelines of our nation and its modern economy and how India is well-linked with the rest of the world. The chapter gives a brief understanding of the dense and efficient network of the transport system as a prerequisite for local, national, and global trade.

Chapter: AGRICULTURE | JKBOSE Class 10th Geography Notes |

 Introductions :
India is an agriculturally important country as two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities.

Types of Farming
• There are various types of farming systems in different parts of India are:

→ Primitive Subsistence Farming: It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. It is done with the help of primitive tools like hoe, Dao and digging sticks, and family/community labour. The farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of 
the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.

→ Intensive Subsistence Farming: This type of farming is labor-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production. This method is commonly done where less land holding is available.

→ Commercial Farming: This type of farming is done using higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.

• Plantation is also a type of commercial farming.
→ in this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area.
• India has three cropping seasons
→ Rabi - Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in 
summer from April to June. Important rabbi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and 

→ Kharif - Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September-October. Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soybean.

→ Zaid - In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season. Important crops grown are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber,Vegetables and fodder crops.

Major Crops
• Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, 
oil seeds, cotton and jute, etc.

• Rice:
→ Staple food crop
→ Our country is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.
→ It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high 
humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
→ It is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the 
deltaic regions.

• Wheat:
→The second most important cereal crop.
→ it is the main food crop, in north and north-western part of the country.
→ This rabi crop requires a cool growing season with 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall 
and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
→ Wheat growing regions are the Ganga-Satluj plains in the north- west and black 
soil region of the Deccan.

• Millets:
→ Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India.
→ These have very high nutritional value.

• Pulses:
India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.
→ Major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
→ These need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
→ Major producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, 
Maharashtra and Karnataka.

Food Crops other than Grains
• Sugarcane:
→ It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. 
jkboseclass10.kashmirstudent.comPage 3
→ It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an 
annual rainfall between 75 cm. and 100 cm.
→ Major producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, 
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.

• Oil Seeds:
→ The oil seeds covers approximately 12 percent of the total cropped area of the country.
→ These are used as cooking mediums as well as used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.

• Tea:
→ Tea cultivation is an example of plantation agriculture.
→ It is an important beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British.
→ It requires warm and moist frost-free climate with frequent showers all through 
the year.
→ Major producing states are Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

• Coffee:
→ Indian coffee is known in the world for its good quality.
→ Its cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

• Horticulture Crops:
→ India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.
→ India produces about 13 percent of the world’s vegetables.

Non-Food Crops
• Rubber: 
→ It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical 
and sub-tropical areas. 
→ It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm. and 
temperature above 25°C.
→ It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar 
islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya.

• Fibre Crops:
→ Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
→ Rearing of silk worms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.

• Cotton:
→ It is a kharif crop grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan 
→ It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and 
bright sun-shine for its growth.
→ Major producing states are – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, 
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

• Jute:
→ It grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are 
renewed every year.
→ Major jute-producing states West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya.
→ It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts.

Technological and Institutional Reforms
• More than 60 percent of India's population depends on agriculture.

• After independence, major institutional reforms such as Collectivization, 
consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc. were given 

• In 1960s and 1970s, technical reforms such as Green Revolution and White Revolution also introduced to improve the condition of agriculture.

• In 1980s and 1990s, various provisions for crop insurance, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.

• Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some 
other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
• Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced 
on the radio and television.

• Minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops 
to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.

Contribution of agriculture to the national economy, employment and output

• In 2010-11 about 52 percent of the total workforce of India was employed by the 
farm sector.
• India's GDP growth rate is increasing over the years but it is not generating sufficient employment opportunities in the country.

Food Security
• The government designed national food security system to ensure the food security 
to every citizen:
→ It consists of two components 
(a) buffer stock and 
(b) public distribution system (PDS)

• Food Corporation of India (FCI) is responsible for procuring and stocking food grains, whereas
distribution is ensured by public distribution system (PDS).

• PDS is a programme which provides food grains and other essential commodities at subsidized prices in rural and urban areas.

• The primary objective of national food security are:
→ Ensure availability of food grains to the common people at an affordable price.
→ The poor should have access to food.
→ Growth in agriculture production
→ Fixing the support price for procurement of wheat and rice, to maintain their stocks.

Impact of Globalization on Agriculture
• Globalization is present at the time of colonization. 
→ During the British period, cotton was exported to Britain as a raw material for their textile industries.

• After 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges under 
→ The agricultural products of India are not able to compete with the developed 
countries because of the highly subsidized agriculture in those countries.

• Genetic engineering is revolutionizing the agricultural production now a days.

• Organic farming is also in fashion these days because it is practiced without factory made chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides. Hence, it does not affect environment in a negative manner.

• Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops which will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously.


Q.1. Multiple Choice Questions
i. Plantation agriculture
ii. Gram
iii. Pulses

Q.2. Answer the following questions in 30 words:
(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.

Ans. Tea is an important beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British. The tea plant grows well in tropical and subtropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.

(ii) Name the staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.

Ans. Cotton is very important staple crop in India. Major cotton producing states are Maharashtra. Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
(i) Oilseed Development Programme
(ii) National Pulse Development Project
(iii) Accelerated Maize Development Programme
(iv) Post-Harvest Technology
(v) Oil Palm Development Programme
(vi) Crop Production Programme
(vii) Intensive Cotton Development Programme
(viii) National Agriculture Technology project (Rainfed agro-ecosystem Programme).

(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
Ans. Consequences of reduction of the land under cultivation day by day are 
the following:
(i) India may go from food surplus to deficit.
(ii) India may face food and even problem of some raw material for agriculture based industries.
(iii) India will force to import certain agricultural items from other countries. She will have to pay invaluable foreign exchange.
(iv) The poor farmers will become poorer. They will be forced to take loan from other people, bank or government agencies.
(v) There will be sharp rise in the agricultural articles, produced, grains and crops.

Q.3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words:
(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
i. Government has established Indian council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) to modernize agriculture.

ii. Agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development, research and development in 
the field of meteorology and weather forecast, etc. were given top priority to improve Indian agriculture. Apart from this, improving 
the rural infrastructure was also considered essential for the same.

iii. The food corporation of India (FCI) procures food grains from the farmers at the government announced minimum support price (MSP). Government used to provide subsidies on agricultural input such as fertilizers, power and water.

iv. The government is taking essential measures to make investment in vital agriculture infrastructure, credit linkage and encouraging 
the farmers to use latest techniques in the field of agriculture to increase production.

(ii) How did the partition of the country in 1947 affect the jute industry?
i. India stands at the second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. It is also due to partition of the country.
ii. Most of the jute mills fall within Indian territory while jute growing areas have gone to Pakistan.
iii. Pakistan was giving stiff competition to India since 1947. The place of Pakistan was taken by Bangladesh since 1971.

(iii) Describe the geographical condition required for the growth of rice.

Ans. Rice:It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, i.e. above 25ºC and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. in the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.

Rice is grown in the plans of North and North-Eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. Development of dense network of 
canal irrigation and tubewells has made it possible to grow rice in the areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.

1. Group discussion of the necessity of literacy among farmers.

(i) Illiteracy is a curse for everyone including farmer. Without literacy farmers will be unable to read books, newspapers and other printed 
materials. In such position, he will not get knowledge about latest technological and other developments taking place in the field of 
agriculture, cattle-rearing, fishery, etc.

(ii) An illiterate farmer will not know his rights and duties fully. About 70 percent people are farmers in India. Democracy requires well-educated and well-informed citizens.

(iii) Modern agriculture practices demand ability to read and understand make use of learning outcome in magazines, projects, programmes and methodologies developed from time to time by agronomists and published in magazines, bulletins, periodicals etc.

(iv) It is a branch of science, therefore, sensitivity to understand the usefulness of new programmes on agriculture is mandatory. It is 
possible only when peasants of our country would be literate and enlightened coincide to the expected extent seminars-nor in paper but 
by directing so-called A.C. groomed Scientists / Agronomists from the farming lobby in fields and making their entitlement 50% of salary only 
when farmers consent in their areas they will submit in personnel department.

2. Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.
1. The two staple food crops of India.
2. This is the summer cropping season of India.
3. Pulses like arhar, moong, gram, urad contain……
4. It is a coarse grain.
5. The two important beverages in India are……
6. One of the four major fibers grown on black soil.

Ans. 1. Rice and Wheat , 2. Kharif, 3. Protein, 4.Maize, 5. Tea and Coffee 6.Cotton

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